Research – Mood Disorders

Dr. A-M. Ghadirian — Mood Disorders

Dr. Ghadirian was Director of the Mood Disorders Clinic at the Department of Psychiatry of the Royal Victoria Hospital (Allan Memorial Institute) at McGill University from 1977 to 2001.  As as clinician, teacher and researcher he worked with a number of colleagues in the clinic which was also known as the Affective Disorders Clinic before the 1990s.  These included Dr. Robert Cleghorn, Dr. Jambur Ananth, Dr. Claude de Monigny, Dr. Herta Guttman, Dr. Pablo Cervantes, Dr. Thomas Kolivakis, Dr. W. Denis Engels and Dr. Marie St-Laurent and other colleagues.  In research he collaborated with Dr. Heinz Lehmann, Dr. Frank Engelsmann, Dr. Guy Chouinard, Professor Lawrence Annable and Dr. Beverly Pearson Murphy.

His main areas of research were bipolar mood disorders, major depression, seasonal affective disorder, mood disorders associated with comorbidities such as schizophrenia, eating disorders and other psychiatric disorders.  Biological and psychosocial aspects of mood disorders were major areas of study and exploration.

Articles, book chapters and books

Ananth, J. and Ghadirian, A-M.: Drug induced mood disorders. International Pharmacopsychiatry J., 15: 59-73, 1980.

Ghadirian, A-M. and Lehmann, H.E.: Neurological side effects of lithium: Organic brain syndrome, seizures, extra-pyramidal side effects, and EEG changes. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 21: 327-335, 1980.

Ghadirian, A-M., Ananth, J. and Engelsmann, F.:  Folic acid deficiency and depression, Psychosomatics, 21: 926-929, 1980.

Ghadirian, A-M. and Lehmann, H.E.: Acquired transient CNS hyper-sensitivity to lithium. Can. J. Psychiatry, 25: 662-665, 1980.

Lapierre, Y.D., Sussman, P. and Ghadirian, A-M.: Differential anti-depressant properties of trazodone and amitriptyline in agitated and retarded depression. Current Therapeutic Research, 28: 845-856, 1980.

Ananth, J., Gold, J., Ghadirian, A-M., and Engelsmann, F.: Long term effects of lithium carbonate on cognitive functions. Journal of Psychiatric Treatment and Evaluation, 3: 551-555, 1981.

Ghadirian, A-M., Engelsmann, F. and Ananth, J.:  Memory functions during lithium therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3: 313-315, 1983.

Yassa, R., Ghadirian, A-M., and Schwartz, G.: Prevalence of tardive dyskinesia in affective disorder patients. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 44 (11): 410-412, 1983.

Ghadirian, A-M. and Engelsmann, F.:  Somatic illness in manic-depressive and schizophrenic patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29: 281-286, 1985.

Ghadirian, A-M., Lalinec-Michaud, M. and Engelsmann, F.: Early and late onset of affective disorders: Clinical and family characteristics. Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 19: 53-57, 1986.

Ghadirian, A-M. Gauthier, S. and Bertrand S.: Anxiety attacks in a patient with a right temporal lobe meningioma. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 47: 270-271, 1986.

Ghadirian, A-M., Paradoxical mood response following anti-depressant withdrawal. Biological Psychiatry, 21: 1298-1300, 1986.

Dent, R.M.R., Ghadirian, A-M., Kusalic, M., and Young S.: Diurnal rhythms of plasma cortisol, beta-endorphin and prolactin, and cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolite levels before suicide, Case report. Neuropsychobiology, 16: 64-67, 1987.

Ghadirian, A-M. and Kamaraju, L.S.: Premenstrual mood changes in affective disorders. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 136: 1027-1032, 1987.

Ananth, J., Ghadirian, A-M., and Engelsmann, F.: Lithium and memory: A review. Canadian J. Psychiatry, 32: 312-316, 1987.

Ghadirian, A-M., Gianoulakis, C. and Nair, N.P.V.: The effect of electroconvulsive therapy on endorphins in depression. Biol. Psychiatry, 23: 459-464, 1988.

Engelsmann, F, Katz J., Ghadirian, A-M. and Schacter, D.: Lithium and memory: A long-term follow-up study.  J. Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8: 207-212, 1988.

Ghadirian, A-M., Steiger, H., and Leichner, P.: A manic episode in the course of anorexia nervosa. Psychosomatics, 30: 101-103, 1989.

Ghadirian, A-M., Nair, N.P.V., and Schwartz, G: Transmembrane lithium distribution and hypertension in manic-depressive patients. Prog. Neuro-psychopharmacol. & Biol. Psychiat. 13: 525-530, 1989.

Ghadirian, A-M., Nair, N.P.V., and Schwartz, G.: Effect of lithium and neuroleptics in combination on lithium transport, blood pressure and weight in bipolar patients. Biol. Psychiatry. 28: 139-144, 1989.

Ghadirian, A-M. and Ananth, J.: Safety of maprotiline in treatment of cardiac patients with left anterior hemiblock: Psychiat. J. University Ottawa, 14: 476-477, 1989.

McMillan, M., Ghadirian, A-M., and Pihl, R.: Premenstrual depression in women with a history of affective disorders: Mood and attentional processes. Can. J. Psychiatry, 34: 791-795, 1989.

Ghadirian, A-M.: The impact of mood disorders on the family environment. Contemporary psychiatry, 9: 46-48, 1990 (Includes book reviewed:  Affective Disorders and the Family: Assessment and Treatment, Eds. J.F. Clarkin, G.L. Hacks and I.D. Glick, New York, Gilford Press., 1988).

Kusalic, M. and Ghadirian, A-M.: Paradoxical mood changes during pharmacotherapy of bipolar patients. Biol. Psychiatry, (Let. Edit.) 27: 1183-1184, 1990.

Ghadirian, A-M. and Kusalic, M.: Rapid cycling following antidepressant in adolescents. (Let. Edit.), 27: 1184, 1990.

Ghadirian, A-M.: Lithium – Tricyclic antidepressant versus Lithium – MAOI combination treatment in refractory depression. Lithium, 1 (2): 128-130, 1990.

Murphy, B.E.P., Dhar, V., Ghadirian, A-M., Chouinard, G. and Keller, R.: Response to steroid suppression in major depression resistant to antidepressant therapy. J. Clinical Psychopharmacology, 11: 121-126, 1991.

Englsmann, F., Ghadirian, A-M. and Grof, P.:  Lithium treatment and memory assessment:  Methodological issues.  Neuropsychobiolog, 26:  113-119, 1992.

Ghadirian, A-M., Annable L., and Belanger, M-C.:  Lithium, benzodiazepines, and sexual function in bipolar patients. Am.J. Psychiatry.  149: 801-805, 1992.

Steiger, H., Thibaudeau, J., Ghadirian, A-M. and Houle, L.:  Psychopathological features in bulimics as a function of Axis II Comorbidity:  Isolation and mood-independence differences. International J. Eating Disorders, 12: 383-395, 1992.

Murphy, B.E.P., Dhar, V., Ghadirian, A-M., Chouinard, G. and Keller R.:  Theoretical basis of response to steriod suppression in major depression. (Let to Ed.) J. Clin. Psychopharmacology, 12: 143-144, 1992.

Ghadirian, A-M., and Dubrovsky, B.: A longitudinal CNV study of the evolution and treatment of bipolar illness.  Intern. J. Neuroscience, 72: 245-250, 1993.

Murphy B.E.P., Filipini, D. and Ghadirian, A-M., Possible use of glucosteroid antagonists in the treatment of major depression:  Preliminary results using RU 486. J. Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 18: 209-213, 1993.

Ananth, J., Engelsmann, F., Ghadirian, A-M., Wohl, M., Shamasundara, P., Narayan, H.S. Depression and guilt in Indian and North American patients: A comparative study. Indian J. Psychiatr., 35: 36-39, 1993.

Ghadirian, A-M., Engelsmann, F., Dhar, V., Filipini, D., Keller, R., Chouinard, G. and Murphy, B.E.P.: The psychotropic effects of steroid biosynthesis in depressed patients refractory to treatment.  Biol. Psychiatry, 37: 369-375, 1995.

Ghadirian, A-M., and Roux, N.: Prevalence and symptoms at onset of bipolar illness among adolescent inpatients. Psychiatric Services, 46: 402-404, 1995.

Ghadirian, A-M., Annable, L., Belanger, M-C, Chouinard, G.: A cross-sectional study of parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia in lithium-treated affective disorders. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 57: 22-28, 1996.

Leyton, M., Young, S.N., Blier, P., Ellenbogen, M., Palmour, R., Ghadirian, A-M., Benkelfat, C.: The effect of tryptophan depletion on mood in medication-free, former patients with major affective disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 16: 294-297, 1997.

Ghadirian, A-M., Murphy, B.E.P. and Gendron, M-J.: Efficacy of light therapy versus tryptophan therapy in seasonal affective disorder. J. Affective Disorders, 50: 23-27, 1998.

Kennedy, K.H., (editor), Bakish, D., Evans, M., Ghadirian, A-M., Kutcher, S.P., Lam, R.W., Levitt, A., Parikh, S., Ravindran, A., Reesal, R., Rosser, W., Silverstone, P., Stewart, J., Vincent, P.: Guidelines For the Diagnosis and Pharmacological Treatment of Depression. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatment (CANMAT) Depression Working Group. Toronto, 1999.

Cervantes, P., Ghadirian, A-M. and Vida, S.: Vitamin B12 and folate levels and lithium administration in patients with affective disorders. Biol. Psychiatry, 45: 214-221, 1999.

Levitt, A.M., Lam R.W., Ghadirian, A-M., Medication Treatment (Treatment Seasonal Affective Disorders).  In Canadian Consensus Group Guidelines for the Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorders. R.W. Lam and A.J. Levitt, Eds. Clinical & Adademic Publishing, Vancouver, 1999, pp. 89-95.

Ghadirian, A-M., Marini, N., Jabalpurwala, S., Steiger, H.: Seasonal mood patterns in eating disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 21: 354-359, 1999.

Leyton, M., Ghadirian, A-M., Young, S.N., Palmour, R.M., Blier, P., Helmers, K.F. and Benkelfat, C.: Depressive relapse following acute tryptophan depletion in patients with major depressive disorder. J. Psychopharmacology., 14: 284-297, 2000.

Ghadirian, A-M., Marcovitz, S. and Murphy, B.E.P.: A case of seasonal bipolar disorder exacerbated by Cushing’s disease. Comprehensive Psychiatry, (46) 155-158, 2005.

Ghadirian, A-M.: Depression:  Biological, Psychosocial and Spiritual Dimensions and Treatment.  Journal of Baha’i Studies, vol. 25, No. 4, winter 2015, pp. 25-60.